The EU-Kazakhstan Memorandum of Understanding: Effectiveness versus Opportunities

The European Union (EU) and Kazakhstan signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on 7 November 2022 to establish strategic partnerships specifically focused on sustainable raw materials, batteries, and renewable hydrogen value chains. The MoU, although not binding, has the potential to encourage public and private investment in the exploration, extraction and process of critical raw materials (CRM) in Kazakhstan and to promote the reduction of trade barriers between the parties. As the agreement has entered its first year, understanding the extent to which the commitments have been fulfilled can provide more efficient processes in the future.

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Forging Partnerships for the Future: Exploring EU-Japan Dialogue on Education, Culture and Youth 

The third EU-Japan dialogue on Education, Culture and Sports held in Tokyo on 3 April 2024 follows the previous meetings held in Budapest in 2018 and by videoconference in 2021 during the pandemic. It demonstrates a continued commitment to cooperation and addressing challenges in the EU-Japan partnership. In response to the issues posed by the pandemic, the dialogues have particularly explored innovative strategies for higher education, including digital education and the integration of artificial intelligence (AI). These digital transformations offer promising avenues for the strengthening of sports diplomacy, fostering collaboration and deepening cultural exchanges.

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Charting EU-India Relations Amid the 2024 Elections

On 19 April 2024, India began its seven-phase Lok Sabha (lower house) election. Spanning over 44 days, surpassing the 2019 Indian general election, this term stands as the largest-ever held election in history. Given the 2024 elections in both the EU and India, the future of EU-India relations must address the security challenges of the subcontinent by maintaining clear priorities, including enhancing regional cooperation in South Asia, improving EU-India economic collaboration, and aligning development and job growth objectives with the EU and India’s climate goals.

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