Our Publications

criticalrawmaterials

The EU-Kazakhstan Memorandum of Understanding: Effectiveness versus Opportunities

The European Union (EU) and Kazakhstan signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on 7 November 2022 to establish strategic partnerships specifically focused on sustainable raw materials, batteries, and renewable hydrogen value chains. The MoU, although not binding, has the potential to encourage public and private investment in the exploration, extraction and process of critical raw materials (CRM) in Kazakhstan and to promote the reduction of trade barriers between the parties. As the agreement has entered its first year, understanding the extent to which the commitments have been fulfilled can provide more efficient processes in the future.

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culture

Forging Partnerships for the Future: Exploring EU-Japan Dialogue on Education, Culture and Youth 

The third EU-Japan dialogue on Education, Culture and Sports held in Tokyo on 3 April 2024 follows the previous meetings held in Budapest in 2018 and by videoconference in 2021 during the pandemic. It demonstrates a continued commitment to cooperation and addressing challenges in the EU-Japan partnership. In response to the issues posed by the pandemic, the dialogues have particularly explored innovative strategies for higher education, including digital education and the integration of artificial intelligence (AI). These digital transformations offer promising avenues for the strengthening of sports diplomacy, fostering collaboration and deepening cultural exchanges.

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election

Charting EU-India Relations Amid the 2024 Elections

On 19 April 2024, India began its seven-phase Lok Sabha (lower house) election. Spanning over 44 days, surpassing the 2019 Indian general election, this term stands as the largest-ever held election in history. Given the 2024 elections in both the EU and India, the future of EU-India relations must address the security challenges of the subcontinent by maintaining clear priorities, including enhancing regional cooperation in South Asia, improving EU-India economic collaboration, and aligning development and job growth objectives with the EU and India’s climate goals.

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Asia

The Middle Corridor Initiative – Where Europe and Asia Meet

Over the past two years, geopolitical shifts in Eurasia have significantly impacted global supply chains, alongside various political and economic dynamics. The repercussions of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and Houthi attacks on merchant ships in the Red Sea have led to serious discussions on the liability of different transport routes. There has been a visible redirection of cargo flow from northern to southern routes in the East-West direction, rendering traditional transport paths less relevant and sought for. Amidst the diminishing significance of the New Eurasian Land Bridge (NELB) or ‘Northern Corridor,’ a demand for alternative transport routes has emerged, with particular attention drawn to the Trans-Caspian International Transport Route (TITR), also called the ‘Middle Corridor.’

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bri

Building Bridges: Post-Pandemic Opportunities for Cooperating on Sino-EU Infrastructure Initiatives

As the world recovers from the Covid-19 pandemic and the global order is shifting, new opportunities are arising for cooperation and enhanced coordination on international infrastructure development. This EIAS Briefing Paper examines the potential and risks for collaboration between China and Europe on their respective connectivity initiatives, and assesses potential challenges, pitfalls, as well as pathways to accomplish this. This is done by (1) illustrating the potential and risks of China’s Belt and Road Initiative; (2) explaining the impacts and changes that have emerged since the pandemic; (3) examining the other actors’ connectivity and infrastructure initiatives, including the EU’s Global Gateway; (4) listing the modes for cooperation; and (5) recommending channels through which to overcome challenges associated with coordination on infrastructure initiatives.

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energy

Framing the Future EU-Viet Nam Partnership – Green Development as a Catalyst for Trade and Political Cooperation?

Two years after the entry into force of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Vietnam and the European Union (EU), this EIAS Briefing Paper outlines the evolution of economic and trade relations between the two partners, identifying relevant sectors for future cooperation. Taking into account both parties’ climate ambitions, as well as Vietnam’s need to develop its energy infrastructure, the EU and Vietnam should collaborate more intensively to secure and incentivise sustainable European investments in Vietnam, facilitated by the FTA. Sharing its experience, the EU can contribute to determining an energy policy adapted to Vietnam’s needs and will.

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DP

South Korea after the National Assembly Election: How Yoon’s defeat could change domestic and foreign politics

On 10 April 2024, the Republic of Korea held its 22nd general election. The Democratic Party (DP), the largest opposition party, secured 175 seats out of the National Assembly’s total of 300, marking a significant advancement since 2020 with an increase of 19 seats. This victory allowed them to maintain control of the parliament. Meanwhile, President Yoon Suk-Yeol’s ruling People Power Party (PPP) secured 108 seats, a slight decrease from its previous count of 114. Nevertheless, these losses were not as extensive as pre-election polls had suggested.

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ASEAN

Balancing Environmental and Socioeconomic Priorities: EU-ASEAN Relations and the Deforestation Regulation

On 2 February 2024, the 2nd meeting of the Ad Hoc Joint Task Force (JTF) on the European Union Deforestation Regulation (EUDR), between the EU Commission, Malaysia, and Indonesia took place in Putrajaya, Malaysia. The gathering was organised by the Council of Palm Oil Producing Countries (CPOPC) and followed the initial meeting held on 4 August, 2023 in Jakarta, Indonesia. Attended by official representatives and stakeholders from key industries affected by the EUDR, such as palm oil, rubber, cocoa, timber, and coffee, the JTF aims to address concerns raised by ASEAN members, particularly Indonesia and Malaysia, regarding the EU’s deforestation regulation. The establishment of the JTF reflects efforts to enhance communication and mitigate tensions between the EU and ASEAN nations.

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azerbaijan

Forging Sustainable Transport Connectivity: Enhancing EU-Central Asia Transportation Through the Trans-Caspian Corridor

The EU-Central Asia Investors Forum 2024 is the latest significant development in the EU’s commitment to improve connectivity in Central Asia. Most notably this includes the development of competitive intermodal transport, logistics networks, and to encourage sustainable development initiatives throughout the region. Bringing together high-level leaders and stakeholders from the EU, Central Asian states, the Caucasus, Türkiye, and other international partners, the Forum served as a platform to discuss future prospects for investment and collaboration in various connectivity sectors including digital, energy, and transports. These future investments and collaborations aim to pave the path for innovative methods and strategic partnerships.

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